PHI115 EXAM 1 (March 2019)

<span itemprop="name">PHI115 EXAM 1 (March 2019)</span>

PHI 115 ETHICS

Exam 1

Question 1

What is a value that all cultures share, according to Rachels?

Answers:

All cultures value personal freedom.

All cultures value fairness.

All cultures value self-defense.

All cultures value truth-telling.

Question 2

The “Euthyphro Dilemma” is the famous question that Socrates asked Euthyphro in Plato’s Euthyphro. What is that question (or what comes closest to that question)?

Answers:

Can right things be right while people disagree about what’s right and wrong?

Is an action right because people say it’s right or do people say it’s right because it is right?

Are actions right because all the gods love them or do the gods love them because they are right?

If the gods agree about what’s right, then why do religions disagree with each other?

Question 3

Which of the following consequences follows from taking Cultural Relativism to be true?

Answers:

Asking whether a given action conforms to the code of oneâ s society is sufficient for determining that actionâ s rightness or wrongness.

The assumption that our society has progressed since the days of slavery becomes doubtful.

A society tolerant of Jews cannot be said to be superior to an anti-Semitic society.

All of these are .

Question 4

True/False: Euthyphro is prosecuting his own father for not paying his fair share in taxes.

Answers:

TRUE

FALSE

Question 5

True/False: Socrates is being charged with impiety.

Answers:

TRUE

FALSE

Question 6

Historians and psychologists are best thought of as doing what kind of ethics?

Answers:

descriptive

normative

meta-ethical

Question 7

What was the position of Socrates in the Crito?

Answers:

He was eating dinner.

He was lecturing to a large audience.

He was in prison.

Question 8

Suppose someone asks Mary what’s the difference between right and wrong and she says, “Well, murder is wrong while helping our neighbors is right. Lying is wrong while obtaining consent from other people is right.” She is making what mistake from Plato’s Euthyphro?

Answers:

She is giving a list of right things and of wrong things.

She is saying that things are right if the gods love them and wrong if the gods hate them.

She is saying that things are right if all the gods love them and wrong if all the gods hate them.

None of the above.

Question 9

Suppose Jim argues in the following way: “Lying is wrong. We were all raised to dislike lying and it’s just socially accepted that lying is wrong.” What mistake is Jim making?

Answers:

The “I think it therefore it’s right” mistake.

He is saying that lots of people think it, therefore it’s right.

He is appealing to a moral authority.

He is using cultural relativism to support his position.

Question 10

Suppose you wanted to know what makes something morally right and were given a list of things that are right. Which of the following is a reason that Socrates would probably give (based on Platoâ s dialogue â Euthyphroâ ) for not wanting a list.

Answers:

A list of examples of rightness would not tell you any examples of rightness.

A list of examples of rightness would not tell you the one characteristic they have in common.

A list of examples of rightness would not help you prosecute your father for murder.

A list of examples of rightness would not be since any and all lists are wrong.

Question 11

(Basedon Regan) Suppose Tom argues in the following way: “Of course murder is wrong. It’s written in the Bible. God says it’s wrong!” What mistake is Tom making?

Answers:

The “I think it therefore it’s right” mistake.

He is saying that lots of people think it, therefore it’s right.

He is appealing to a moral authority.

He is using cultural relativism to support his position.

Question 12

(from Frankena) The claim “It is always wrong to harm someone” is what kind of claim?

Answers:

A claim from descriptive ethics.

A claim from normative ethics.

A claim from meta-ethics.

Question 13

True/False: Based on the syllabus: Each week you are required to post at least two constructive comments in the discussion forum.

Selected Answer:

Answers:

TRUE

FALSE

Question 14

True/False: Cultural relativists believe that there are no standards of right and wrong.

Answers:

TRUE

FALSE

Question 15

Why does Rachels say that not every moral rule can vary from society to society?

Answers:

Some rules are necessary for society to exist.

Human beings share a common creator.

Certain values are innate.

Human beings have all evolved from a common ancestral line

Question 16

Suppose Sue argues in the following way: “82% of the U.S. population is in favor of the death penalty. Therefore, the death penalty is morally permissible.” What mistake is Sue making?

Answers:

The “I think it therefore it’s right” mistake.

He is saying that lots of people think it, therefore it’s right.

He is appealing to a moral authority.

He is using cultural relativism to support his position.

Question 17

Why does Regan think the method of answering moral questions cannot be the appeal to a moral authority?

Answers:

It is not clear that such an authority exists.

Even if there is a moral authority, it is not clear that we could be sure what he or she thinks about moral questions.

The authoritative status of moral judgments can be established only if there are independent ways of testing the truth or reasonableness of those judgments.

All of the choices are , according to Regan.

Question 18

What makes an action right or wrong, according to cultural relativism?

Answers:

the standards of one’s culture

the consequences of doing that action

whether that action is rational or irrational to do

whether that action makes one happy or not

Question 19

(from Frankena) True/False: One of the first points of Socrates when deciding what to do, was to say that we should not let our decisions be determined by our emotions.

Answers:

TRUE

FALSE

Question 20

Euthypro attempts to define piety at one point by saying, “The pious is what the gods love and the impious is what the gods hate.” Why, according to Socrates, can’t this be ?

Answers:

The gods disagree with one another. Hence the same thing could be both pious and impious, which is impossible.

The gods disagree with one another. Hence one god would have to be more powerful than another god, which we can’t know.

The gods disagree, which means that the gods aren’t rational. That is itself an imious view.

If whatever the gods love is pious, then anything could be pious, even killing children. That’s obviously false.